Although only in dogs now, this is impressive results for a phase 1 dose finding trials. I have long been interested in this approach. About 15 years ago a phase 3 trial of CINTREDEKIN BESUDOTOX (IL13-PE38QQR) failed (although some patients did very well). The researchers analyzed the trial, figured out why it did not work and fixed it. The 2 main problems were the delivery by convection enhanced delivery was not good enough at that time - but it is now, and the receptor they chose was not restricted to only brain tumor. They changed from the wild type IL13 receptor to the mutant Il-13ra2 which is mostly found in tumors. They then added a second receptor, EPHA2 which is also only found in tumor. Unfortunately, it has been hard to get this into human trials because the first generation failed. Now with proof of concept in dogs, hopefully it will move to human trials quickly!